It has taken me forty-four years to write this bookâtheÂ length of time I have been studying Pakistan (and India). My early interests
were in the role of the military, but I was unable to visit Pakistan untilÂ 1978, as an earlier application for a visa had been turned down by theÂ government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.Â When I did visit Pakistan for the first time I was surprised to discoverÂ that my personal âidea of Pakistanâ was wildly inaccurate: not better, notÂ worse, just different. That trip led to a book, The Pakistan Army. ResearchÂ for that book was made possible by General Zia ul-Haq, who promptlyÂ banned it, although he eventually told an aide to âlet the professorâs bookÂ be published.â Ziaâs decision was only one of the many paradoxes IÂ encountered in studying Pakistan, and the mixture of hope and frustrationÂ reflected in The Pakistan Army is to be found here as well.