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THIS BOOK IS RECOMMENDED BY FPSC FOR OPTIONAL SUBJECT POLITICAL SCIENCE
The Qurâan is a book which emphasizes âdeedâ rather than âideaâ. There are, however, men to whom itÂ is not possible organically to assimilate an alien universe by re-living, as a vital process, that specialÂ type of inner experience on which religious faith ultimately rests. Moreover, the modern man, byÂ developing habits of concrete thought â habits which Islam itself fostered at least in the earlier stages ofÂ its cultural career â has rendered himself less capable of that experience which he further suspectsÂ because of its liability to illusion. The more genuine schools of Sufism have, no doubt, done good workÂ in shaping and directing the evolution of religious experience in Islam; but their latter-dayÂ representatives, owing to their ignorance of the modern mind, have become absolutely incapable ofÂ receiving any fresh inspiration from modern thought and experience. They are perpetuating methodsÂ which were created forgenerations possessing a cultural outlook differing, in important respects, fromÂ our own. âYour creation andresurrection,â says the QurâÂ«n, âare like the creation and resurrection of aÂ single soul.â A living experience of the kind of biological unity, embodied in this verse, requires todayÂ a method physiologically less violent and psychologically more suitable to a concrete type of mind. InÂ the absence of such a method the demand for a scientific form of religious knowledge is only natural.Â In these Lectures, which were undertaken at the request of the Madras Muslim Association andÂ delivered at Madras, Hyderabad, and Aligarh, I have tried to meet, even though partially, this urgentÂ demand by attempting to reconstruct Muslim religious philosophy with due regard to the philosophicalÂ traditions of Islam and the more recent developments in the various domains of human knowledge.