Henry Kissinger offers inÂ World OrderÂ a deep meditation on the roots of international harmony and global disorder. Drawing on his experience as one of the foremost statesmen of the modern eraâadvising presidents, traveling the world, observing and shaping the central foreign policy events of recent decadesâKissinger now reveals his analysis of the ultimate challenge for the twenty-first century: how to build a shared international order in a world of divergent historical perspectives, violent conflict, proliferating technology, and ideological extremism.
There has never been a true âworld order,â Kissinger observes. For most of history, civilizations defined their own concepts of order. Each considered itself the center of the world and envisioned its distinct principles as universally relevant. China conceived of a global cultural hierarchy with the Emperor at its pinnacle. In Europe, Rome imagined itself surrounded by barbarians; when Rome fragmented, European peoples refined a concept of an equilibrium of sovereign states and sought to export it across the world. Islam, in its early centuries, considered itself the worldâs sole legitimate political unit, destined to expand indefinitely until the world was brought into harmony by religious principles. The United States was born of a conviction about the universal applicability of democracyâa conviction that has guided its policies ever since.Â Now international affairs take place on a global basis, and these historical concepts of world order are meeting. Every region participates in questions of high policy in every other, often instantaneously. Yet there is no consensus among the major actors about the rules and limits guiding this process, or its ultimate destination. The result is mounting tension.
Grounded in Kissingerâs deep study of history and his experience as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State,Â World OrderÂ guides readers through crucial episodes in recent world history. Kissinger offers a unique glimpse into the inner deliberations of the Nixon administrationâs negotiations with Hanoi over the end of the Vietnam War, as well as Ronald Reaganâs tense debates with Soviet Premier Gorbachev in ReykjavÃk.